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加工丝杠产生振动的原因有哪些?

来源:http://www.jngongrun.com/ 日期:2021-10-15 发布人:admin

在装配和调试过程中,机械的旋转运动所产生的振动是不可避免的,机械产生振动会对机床的正常使用造成一定的危害,它使机床的工作性能降低,甚至根本无法工作,还会造成某些零件的加速磨损、疲劳,降低机床的使用寿命。当出现一些不正常的振动时,就必须采取措施予以排除,以保证机床的安 全运行。在龙门加工中 心的装配调试过程中,经常会碰到丝杠产生振动的现象,除了是系统电气参数设置和选配不适当等因素外,还有一些是机械方面的原因,主要有以下几个方面:

In the process of assembly and debugging, the vibration generated by the rotating movement of the machine is inevitable. The vibration generated by the machine will cause certain harm to the normal use of the machine tool. It will reduce the working performance of the machine tool, or even fail to work at all. It will also cause accelerated wear and fatigue of some parts and reduce the service life of the machine tool. When some abnormal vibration occurs, measures must be taken to eliminate it in order to ensure the safe operation of the machine tool. During the assembly and commissioning of gantry machining center, the vibration of lead screw is often encountered. In addition to the improper setting and selection of system electrical parameters, there are also some mechanical reasons, mainly in the following aspects:
一、丝杠安装因素
1、 Lead screw installation factors
现龙门加工中 心包括数控机床的传动丝杠都是滚珠丝杠,而且传动精度较高,同时对我们装配的安装精度也有较高的要求。丝杠传动结构主要由丝杠本身、丝杠螺母、丝杠座(也叫轴承座)、丝杠轴承、锁紧螺母、联轴器、伺服电机等组成。在安装过程中,必 须保证丝杠轴心线与运动导轨基准面平行,如果安装误差较大时,拖板在运动过程中会使丝杠产生弯曲变形,丝杠旋转受力不均匀,进而产生振动现象。
At present, the transmission screws of gantry machining center including CNC machine tools are ball screws, and the transmission accuracy is high. At the same time, it also has high requirements for the installation accuracy of our assembly. The lead screw transmission structure is mainly composed of lead screw itself, lead screw nut, lead screw seat (also known as bearing seat), lead screw bearing, lock nut, coupling, servo motor, etc. During installation, it must be ensured that the axis line of the lead screw is parallel to the datum plane of the moving guide rail. If the installation error is large, the carriage will bend and deform the lead screw during movement, and the rotation force of the lead screw is uneven, resulting in vibration.
二、丝杠螺母与拖板连接安装因素
2、 Installation factors of connection between lead screw nut and carriage
在丝杠螺母与拖板连接的安装过程中,有时会由于拖板端面加工原因,造成丝杠螺母上的螺丝孔与拖板结合面的安装孔互相干涉,或者安装面与基准(导轨)面不垂直,也就是安装面与丝杠螺母结合面不平行,导致丝杠螺母紧固螺钉拧紧后迫使丝杠产生变形,发生振动现象。
During the installation of the connection between the lead screw nut and the carriage, sometimes the screw hole on the lead screw nut interferes with the installation hole on the joint surface of the carriage due to the processing of the end face of the carriage, or the installation surface is not perpendicular to the reference (guide rail) surface, that is, the installation surface is not parallel to the joint surface of the lead screw nut, resulting in the deformation of the lead screw after the fastening screw of the lead screw nut is tightened, Vibration occurs.
三、联轴器的安装因素
3、 Installation factors of coupling
电机带动丝杠转动是通过弹性联轴器连接的,在这部分的安装过程中,首先必 须保证丝杠端部的径向跳动误差符合设计要求,其次要保证电机安装面与丝杠轴心线垂直,电机旋转轴心线与丝杠轴心线重合,一般由设计要求定位孔保证。较后,均匀地用力矩扳手拧紧联轴器上胀套压盖的紧固螺钉,如此三个条件未满足,丝杠和联轴器就会产生振动。
The rotation of the lead screw driven by the motor is connected through the elastic coupling. In the installation process of this part, firstly, it must ensure that the radial runout error at the end of the lead screw meets the design requirements. Secondly, it must ensure that the installation surface of the motor is perpendicular to the axis line of the lead screw, and the rotation axis line of the motor coincides with the axis line of the lead screw, which is generally guaranteed by the positioning hole required by the design. Later, tighten the fastening screws of the expansion sleeve gland on the coupling evenly with a torque wrench. If the three conditions are not met, the lead screw and coupling will vibrate.
四、丝杠轴向间隙的因素
4、 Factors affecting axial clearance of lead screw
在拖板运动过程中,如果丝杠的轴向间隙过大,也会产生振动现象,包括拖板爬行现象。这是因为数控轴本身带有光栅尺,在光栅尺生效情况下,根据光栅信号的反馈,伺服电机会不断正反旋转纠正拖板位置,时快时慢,速度不均匀而产生振动。
During the movement of the carriage, if the axial clearance of the lead screw is too large, it will also produce vibration, including the crawling of the carriage. This is because the NC axis itself has a grating ruler. When the grating ruler takes effect, according to the feedback of the grating signal, the servo motor will continuously rotate forward and backward to correct the carriage position, which is fast and slow, and the speed is uneven, resulting in vibration.

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