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滚珠丝杠怎么安装?

来源:http://www.jngongrun.com/ 日期:2021-12-04 发布人:gongrun

滚珠丝杠,属于机床轴承中的一个分类,是能将回转运动转化为直线运动,或将直线运动转化为回转运动的理想的机床轴承产品。滚珠丝杠由螺杆、螺母、反向装置和滚珠组成,滚珠丝杠的主要功能是将旋转运动转化成直线运动,或将扭矩转换成轴向反覆作用力,并且同时兼具高精度、可逆性和效率高等特点。

Ball screw, belonging to a classification of machine tool bearings, is an ideal machine tool bearing product that can convert rotary motion into linear motion, or convert linear motion into rotary motion. The ball screw is composed of screw, nut, reverse device and ball. The main function of the ball screw is to convert rotary motion into linear motion, or torque into axial repeated force, and has the characteristics of high precision, reversibility and high efficiency.
滚珠丝杆一般通过支撑座安装固定,安装方式分三种,分别是,一段固定,一端自由安装方式;一端固定,另一端支撑安装方式;两端固定安装方式。
The ball screw is generally installed and fixed through the support seat. There are three installation methods: one section is fixed and one end is free; One end is fixed and the other end is supported; Fixed installation method at both ends.
三种基本安装方式:
Three basic installation methods:
一端固定,一端自由方式
One end is fixed and one end is free
一端固定,另一端自由安装方式,固定端的轴承可以同时承受轴向力和径向力,而滚珠丝杠轴承这种的支承方式主要是用于行程较小的短丝杠轴承或者全封闭式的机床,因为当采用这种结构的机械定位方式时,其精度是不可靠的,尤其是长径比大的丝杠轴承(滚珠丝杠相对细长),其热变形是非常明显的。但是,如果是1.5米长的丝杠,其在冷、热的不同环境下0.05~0.1mm是属于正常正常现象。尽管如此,由于其结构较简单,安装调试较方便,大多高精度机床依然是采用这种结构;但是,有一点需要特别注意的就是,采用这种结构时需要加装光栅,采用全封闭环来反馈,以便能够充分丝杠的性能。
One end is fixed and the other end is installed freely. The bearing at the fixed end can bear both axial force and radial force. The support mode of ball screw bearing is mainly used for short lead screw bearing with small stroke or fully enclosed machine tool, because when the mechanical positioning mode of this structure is adopted, its accuracy is unreliable, especially the lead screw bearing with large length diameter ratio (the ball screw is relatively slender) , its thermal deformation is very obvious. However, if it is a 1.5m long lead screw, it is normal for it to be 0.05 ~ 0.1mm in different cold and hot environments. Nevertheless, due to its simple structure and convenient installation and commissioning, most high-precision machine tools still use this structure; however, one thing that needs special attention is that it needs to be equipped with light when using this structure The fully enclosed ring is used for feedback, so as to fully the performance of the lead screw.
一端固定,另一端支承方式
One end is fixed and the other end is supported
一端固定,另一端支承这种安装方式,固定端的轴承同样也是可以同时承受轴向力和径力,而支承端只承受径向力,并且能够做微量的轴向浮动,以及可以减少或者避免因丝杠自重而出现的弯曲,另外,丝杠的滚珠丝杠支撑轴承热变形可以自由的向一端伸长。因此,这是使用广泛的一种结构。比如:国内中小型数控车床、立式加工点等等都是采用这种结构。
One end is fixed and the other end supports this installation method. The bearing at the fixed end can also bear axial force and radial force at the same time, while the supporting end can only bear radial force and can make a small amount of axial floating, and can reduce or avoid bending due to the dead weight of the lead screw. In addition, the thermal deformation of the ball lead screw support bearing of the lead screw can extend freely to one end. Therefore , this is a widely used structure, such as small and medium-sized CNC lathes and vertical machining points in China.
两端固定方式
Fixing method at both ends
丝杠两端均固定这种方式,固定端轴承可以同时承受轴向力,并且可以对丝杠施加适当的预紧力,以提高丝杠的支承刚度,同时还可以部分地补偿丝杠的热变形。因此,大型机床、重型机床以及高精度镗铣床大多都是采用这种结构。当然,其也有不足的地方,那就是采用这种结构的话会使得调整工作比较繁琐;此外,如果在安装调整时两端的预紧力过大的话,将会导致丝杠终的行程比设计行程长,螺距也会比设计螺距大;而如果两端螺母的预紧力不够的话,就会导致相反的结果,从而容易引起机床振动,致使精度降低。因此,如果是采用两端固定这种结构的话,那么在拆装时一定要严格按照说明书来进行调整,或者是借助仪器(双频激光干涉仪)来调整,以免造成一些不必要的损失。
Both ends of the lead screw are fixed in this way. The bearing at the fixed end can bear the axial force at the same time, and an appropriate preload can be applied to the lead screw to improve the support stiffness of the lead screw and partially compensate the thermal deformation of the lead screw. Therefore, most large machine tools, heavy machine tools and high-precision boring and milling machines adopt this structure. Of course, it also has some shortcomings, that is If this structure is adopted, the adjustment work will be cumbersome; in addition, if the preload at both ends is too large during installation and adjustment, the final stroke of the lead screw will be longer than the design stroke and the pitch will be larger than the design pitch; if the preload of the nuts at both ends is not enough, it will lead to the opposite result, which is easy to cause the vibration of the machine tool and reduce the accuracy If this structure is fixed at both ends, it must be adjusted in strict accordance with the instructions or with the help of instruments (dual frequency laser interferometer) to avoid unnecessary losses.
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