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导轨丝杠故障了能维修吗?

来源:http://www.jngongrun.com/ 日期:2021-12-10 发布人:gongrun

很多机床操作者会有疑惑,机床上的丝杆故障了能不能维修呢?我们要知道,丝杆的故障可能是继发性的,也有可能是突发性的。只有找到故障原因,才可知能不能维修。下面我们就来介绍几种丝杆故障及对应的修理方法。

Many machine tool operators will wonder whether the screw on the machine tool can be repaired if it fails? We should know that the screw failure may be secondary or sudden. Only when the cause of the fault is found can we know whether it can be repaired. Next, we will introduce several screw failures and corresponding repair methods.
一、丝杠螺母副及支撑系统间隙的检测与修理
1、 Inspection and repair of clearance between lead screw nut pair and support system
当数控机床出现反向误差大、定位精度不稳定、过象限出现刀痕时,首先要检测丝杠系统有没有间隙。检测的方法有:用百分表配合钢球放在丝杠的一端中间孔中,测量丝杠的轴向窜动,另一块百分表测量工作台移动。正反转动丝杠,观察两块百分表上反映的数值,根据数值不同的变化确认故障部位。
When the NC machine tool has large reverse error, unstable positioning accuracy and knife marks across the quadrant, it is necessary to check whether the lead screw system has clearance. The detection methods are as follows: put the dial indicator and steel ball in the middle hole at one end of the lead screw to measure the axial movement of the lead screw, and another dial indicator to measure the movement of the worktable. Turn the lead screw forward and backward, observe the values reflected on the two dial indicators, and confirm the fault position according to the changes of values.
丝杠支撑轴承间隙的检测与修理
Inspection and repair of bearing clearance of lead screw support
如测量丝杠的百分表在丝杠正反向转动时指针没有摆动,说明丝杠没有窜动。如百分表指针摆动,说明丝杠有窜动现象。该百分表较大与较小测量值之差就是丝杠的轴向窜动的距离。这时,我们就要检查支撑轴承的背帽是否锁紧、支撑轴承是否已磨损失效、预加负荷轴承垫圈是否合适。如果轴承没有问题,只要重新配做预加 负荷垫圈就可以了。如果轴承损坏,需要把轴承更换掉,重新配做预加负荷垫圈,再把背帽背紧。丝杠轴向窜动大小主要在于支撑轴承预加负荷垫圈的精度。丝杠安装精度较为理想的状态是没有正反间隙,支撑轴承还要有0.02mm左右的过盈。
If the pointer of the dial indicator for measuring the lead screw does not swing when the lead screw rotates forward and backward, it indicates that the lead screw does not move. If the dial indicator pointer swings, it indicates that the lead screw has movement. The difference between the larger and smaller measured values of the dial indicator is the axial movement distance of the lead screw. At this time, we need to check whether the back cap of the support bearing is locked, whether the support bearing has been worn and failed, and whether the preload bearing washer is appropriate. If there is no problem with the bearing, just refit the preloaded washer. If the bearing is damaged, replace the bearing, refit the preload washer, and then back the back cap tightly. The axial movement of the lead screw mainly depends on the accuracy of the preloaded washer of the support bearing. The ideal installation accuracy of the lead screw is that there is no positive and negative clearance, and the support bearing should have an interference of about 0.02mm.
丝杠双螺母副产生间隙的检测与维修
Inspection and maintenance of clearance caused by double nut pair of lead screw
通过检测,如果确认故障不是由于丝杠窜动引起的。那就要考虑是否是丝杠螺母副之间产生了间隙,这种情况的检测方法基本与检测丝杠窜动相同。用百分表测量与螺母相连的工作台上,正反向转动丝杠,检测出丝杠与螺母之间的较大间隙,然后进行调整。
Through inspection, if it is confirmed that the fault is not caused by the movement of the lead screw. It is necessary to consider whether there is a gap between the lead screw and nut pair. The detection method in this case is basically the same as that for detecting the movement of the lead screw. Use a dial indicator to measure the working table connected with the nut, turn the lead screw forward and backward, detect the large gap between the lead screw and the nut, and then adjust it.
丝杆故障了能不能维修?
Can the screw rod be repaired if it fails?
二、轴承、丝杠螺母副润滑不良
2、 Poor lubrication of bearing, lead screw and nut pair
机床在工作中如产生噪音和振动,在检测机械传动部分没有问题后,首先要考虑到润滑不良的问题,很多机床经过多年的运转,丝杠螺母自动润滑系统往往堵塞, 不能自动润滑。可以在轴承、螺母中加入耐高温、耐高速的润滑脂就可以解决问题。润滑脂能保证轴承、螺母正常运行数年之久。
If the machine tool generates noise and vibration during operation, after detecting that there is no problem in the mechanical transmission part, we should first consider the problem of poor lubrication. After many years of operation, the automatic lubrication system of lead screw and nut is often blocked and cannot be lubricated automatically. The problem can be solved by adding high temperature and high speed resistant grease to bearings and nuts. The grease can ensure the normal operation of bearings and nuts for several years.
三、伺服电机驱动问题
3、 Servo motor drive problem
有的机床在运动中产生振动和爬行,往往检测机械部分均无问题,不管怎样调整都不能解决掉振动和爬行。经仔细检查,发现伺服电机驱动增益参数不适合实际运行状况。调整增益参数后,就可解决掉振动和爬行问题。
Some machine tools produce vibration and creep in motion, and there is often no problem in detecting the mechanical part. No matter how to adjust, the vibration and creep can not be solved. After careful inspection, it is found that the servo motor drive gain parameters are not suitable for the actual operation. After adjusting the gain parameters, the vibration and crawling problems can be solved.
丝杆要根据具体的损伤状况,来判断能否维修。
The screw rod shall be repaired according to the specific damage condition.
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