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如何精密地安装机床滚珠丝杠副?

来源:http://www.jngongrun.com/ 日期:2022-07-23 发布人:admin

机床滚珠丝杠副常用的安装方式:

Common installation methods of machine tool ball screw pair:
滚珠丝杠副常用的安装方式通常有以下几种:双推-自由方式;双推-支承方式;双推-双推方式。
Ball screw pairs are usually installed in the following ways: double push free way; Double push support mode; Double push - double push mode.
大型卧式加工心,是具有高性能、高刚性和高精度的机电一体的加工设备,是加工各类高精度传动箱体零件及其他大型模具的理想加工设备。它的三个坐标方向均采用伺服电机带动滚动丝杠传动,三个坐标方向,即X、Y、Z的工作行程较大。由于滚珠丝杠副的结构特点,使主机上三个方向的滚珠丝杠副的安装变得特别关键。
Large horizontal machining center is an electromechanical processing equipment with high performance, high rigidity and high precision. It is an ideal processing equipment for processing all kinds of high-precision transmission box parts and other large molds. Its three coordinate directions adopt servo motor to drive the rolling lead screw transmission, and the working stroke of the three coordinate directions, namely x, y and Z, is large. Due to the structural characteristics of the ball screw pair, the installation of the ball screw pair in three directions on the host becomes particularly critical.
一、用旧方法安装滚珠丝杠副存在缺陷:
1、 There are defects in installing the ball screw pair with the old method:
1、按照传统的工艺方法,安装滚珠丝杠副一直沿用芯棒和定位套将两端支承轴承座及中间丝母座连接在一起校正、用百分表将芯棒轴线与机床导轨找正平行并令芯棒传动自如轻快的方法。这种安装方法在三个坐标方向行程较小的小型数控机床和加工上应用较方便。由于芯棒与定位套、定位套与两端支承的轴承孔以及中间的丝母座孔存在着配合间隙,往往使安装后的支承轴承孔和丝母座孔的同轴度误差较大,造成丝杠绕度大、径向偏置载荷增加、引起丝杠轴系各环节的温度升高、热变形变大和传动扭矩大等一系列严重后果,导致伺服电机超载、过热,伺服系统报警,影响机床的正常运行。另外,两端轴承孔与中间丝母座孔的实际差值无法准确测量,从而影响进一步的整。对于三个坐标方向行程较大的数控机床和加工中,由于所需芯棒多在1500mm以上,加工困难,不易保证精度,因此无法采用芯棒与定位套配合的找正方法进行滚珠丝杠副的安装。
1. According to the traditional process method, the installation of the ball screw pair has been using the method of connecting the supporting bearing seats at both ends and the intermediate screw mother seat with the mandrel and positioning sleeve, correcting, aligning and paralleling the mandrel axis with the machine tool guide rail with a dial indicator, and making the mandrel drive freely and easily. This installation method is convenient for small CNC machine tools and machining with small stroke in three coordinate directions. Due to the matching clearance between the mandrel and the positioning sleeve, the positioning sleeve and the bearing holes supported at both ends and the middle screw seat hole, the coaxiality error between the installed support bearing hole and the screw seat hole is often large, resulting in a series of serious consequences such as large lead screw winding, increased radial offset load, increased temperature of all links of the lead screw shaft system, increased thermal deformation and large transmission torque, resulting in overload and overheating of the servo motor, The servo system alarms, affecting the normal operation of the machine tool. In addition, the actual difference between the bearing holes at both ends and the mother seat hole of the middle wire cannot be accurately measured, which affects further adjustment. For CNC machine tools with large stroke in three coordinate directions and processing, because the required mandrel is more than 1500mm, it is difficult to process and it is not easy to ensure the accuracy, so the alignment method of mandrel and positioning sleeve can not be used for the installation of ball screw pair.
在生产某型卧式加工时,由于机床的三个坐标行程较大,采用传统工艺方法安装的过程中,由于两端轴承孔与中间丝母座孔同轴度超差,造成滚珠丝杠径向和偏置载荷增加,经常出现伺服电机超载、过热,伺服系统报警等现象,使机床无法连续运行,同时严重影响滚珠丝杠副的使用寿命和传动精度,缩短了主机的维修周期。
In the production of a certain type of horizontal machining, due to the large travel of the three coordinates of the machine tool, during the installation process using the traditional process method, the coaxiality of the bearing holes at both ends and the middle thread mother seat hole is out of tolerance, resulting in the increase of the radial and offset load of the ball screw, and the phenomena of overload and overheating of the servo motor and alarm of the servo system often occur, which makes the machine tool unable to operate continuously, and seriously affects the service life and transmission accuracy of the ball screw pair, The maintenance cycle of the host is shortened.
2、利用其他装配方法,如采用移动滑鞍,缩短丝母座与轴承座的距离,将丝母座与两端轴承座分别找正的方法,由于需要两段分别找正,加上检棒和检套的配合间隙,实际应用效果也不理想,同样存在上述问题。
2. Using other assembly methods, such as moving the sliding saddle, shortening the distance between the screw nut seat and the bearing seat, and aligning the screw nut seat and the bearing seat at both ends respectively, due to the need for two sections to be aligned respectively, plus the matching gap between the inspection rod and the inspection sleeve, the actual application effect is not ideal, and the above problems also exist.
二、新的装配工艺方法:
2、 New assembly process method:
通过对该产品的现场技术攻关,经过多次反复的摸索与生产验证,总结出一条比较可靠的装配工艺方法。
Through the on-site technical research of this product, after repeated exploration and production verification, a relatively reliable assembly process method is summarized.
1、首先,采用整体式专用芯棒将丝母座孔校正,使其与基准导轨的正、侧向平行度在0.01/1000以内;
1. First, use an integral special mandrel to correct the hole of the screw nut seat, so that its positive and lateral parallelism with the reference guide rail is within 0.01/1000;
2、把丝母座固定后,采用测量夹具实际测量出丝母座孔距基准导轨的正、侧向距离;然后,同样采用整体式专用检棒将轴承孔与基准导轨的正、侧向平行度找正在0.01/1000以内,采用专用测量夹具实际测量出轴承孔距基准导轨的正、侧向距离,要求丝母孔与基准导轨正、侧向距离一致,允差为0.01;将轴承座固定。这种方法采用整体式专用检棒,不仅长度短小,而且将芯棒和定位套合二为一,消除了芯棒与定位套之间的配合间隙,可靠保证了轴承孔、丝母座孔与导轨的平行度;
2. After fixing the screw nut seat, use professional measuring fixture to actually measure the positive and lateral distance between the screw nut seat hole and the reference guide rail; Then, also use the integrated special inspection rod to align the positive and lateral parallelism between the bearing hole and the reference guide rail within 0.01/1000, and use the special measuring fixture to actually measure the positive and lateral distances between the bearing hole and the reference guide rail. It is required that the positive and lateral distances between the screw mother hole and the reference guide rail are consistent, and the tolerance is 0.01; Fix the bearing seat. This method adopts an integral special inspection rod, which is not only short in length, but also combines the mandrel and the positioning sleeve into one, eliminating the fit gap between the mandrel and the positioning sleeve, and reliably ensuring the parallelism of the bearing hole, the thread mother seat hole and the guide rail;
3、通过实际距离的测量,使两端轴承支承孔与丝母座孔的同轴度也得到了可靠的保证,这样就降低了滚珠丝杠副的绕度和径向偏置载荷,提高了丝杠副的安装精度。
3. Through the measurement of the actual distance, the coaxiality of the bearing support holes at both ends and the screw base holes is also reliably guaranteed, which reduces the winding and radial offset load of the ball screw pair and improves the installation accuracy of the screw pair.
4、另外,在安装滚珠丝杠的过程中,严格控制滚珠丝杠的轴向窜动量,此项技术指标将直接影响滚珠丝杠进给系统的传动位置精度。根据现场实际验证表明:首先,要将安装伺服电机端的轴承座内的轴承装配好,其在滚动丝杠传动过程中起主要作用,将滚珠丝杠的轴向窜动量控制在0.015~0.02之间;然后,再将另一端轴承座内的轴承装配好,使轴向窜动量控制在0.01以内。这样就能有效保证滚珠丝杠进给系统的刚度和精度。
4. In addition, in the process of installing the ball screw, the axial displacement of the ball screw is strictly controlled. This technical index will directly affect the transmission position accuracy of the ball screw feed system. According to the actual verification on site, it is shown that: first, the bearing in the bearing seat installed at the servo motor end should be assembled well, which plays a major role in the transmission process of the rolling screw, and the axial displacement of the ball screw should be controlled between 0.015~0.02; Then, assemble the bearing in the bearing seat at the other end to control the axial displacement within 0.01. This can effectively ensure the stiffness and accuracy of the ball screw feed system.
5、滚珠丝杠轴的预拉伸也是非常必要的。为了提高滚珠丝杠进给系统的刚度和精度,给丝杠轴实施预拉伸是非常有效的,但由于丝杠轴的各断面不同,而温升又不易精设定,所以按有关文献计算得出的预拉力只能作为参考量。在生产中常常是把具有负值方向的目标值的丝杠轴进行预拉伸,使机床工作台的定位精度曲线的走向接近水平。
5. Pre stretching of ball screw shaft is also very necessary. In order to improve the stiffness and accuracy of the ball screw feed system, it is very effective to pre stretch the screw shaft. However, due to the different sections of the screw shaft, and the temperature rise is not easy to be accurately set, the pre tension calculated according to the relevant literature can only be used as a reference. In production, the lead screw shaft with the target value in the negative direction is often pre stretched, so that the orientation of the positioning accuracy curve of the machine tool workbench is close to the horizontal.
以上就是为大家介绍的有关导轨丝杠的详细的介绍,希望对您有所帮助.如果您有什么疑问的话,欢迎联系我们.我们将以的态度,为您提供服务http://www.jngongrun.com
The above is a detailed introduction about the guide screw for you. I hope it will help you. If you have any questions, please contact us. We will provide services for you with a professional attitude http://www.jngongrun.com

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