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直线导轨在机床上的工作模式

来源:http://www.jngongrun.com/ 日期:2022-07-21 发布人:admin

导轨系统使机床可获得快速进给速度,在主轴转速相同的情况下,快速进给是直线导轨的特点。直线导轨与平面导轨一样,有两个基本元件;一个作为导向的为固定元件,另一个是移动元件。由于直线导轨是标准部件,对机床制造厂来说.一要做的只是加工一个安装导轨的平面和校调导轨的平行度。当然,为了保证机床的精度,床身或立柱少量的刮研是必不可少的,在多数情况下,安装也比较简单。

The guide rail system enables the machine tool to obtain rapid feed speed. Under the condition of the same spindle speed, rapid feed is the characteristic of linear guide rail. Like plane guide rail, linear guide rail has two basic components; One is a fixed element as a guide, and the other is a moving element. As the linear guide rail is a standard component, for machine tool manufacturers, the first thing to do is to process the plane of an installation guide rail and adjust the parallelism of the guide rail. Of course, in order to ensure the accuracy of the machine tool, a small amount of scraping and grinding of the bed or column is essential. In most cases, the installation is relatively simple.
与平面导轨比较,直线导轨横截面的几何形状,比平面导轨复杂,复杂的原因是因为导轨上需要加工出沟槽,以利于滑动元件的移动,沟槽的形状和数量,取决于机床要完成的功能。例如:一个既承受直线作用力,又承受颠覆力矩的导轨系统,与仅承受直线作用力的导轨相比.设计上有很大的不同。
Compared with the plane guide rail, the geometry of the cross section of the linear guide rail is more complex than the plane guide rail. The reason for the complexity is that the guide rail needs to be processed with grooves to facilitate the movement of the sliding elements. The shape and number of grooves depend on the function of the machine tool. For example, the design of a guideway system that bears both linear force and overturning torque is very different from that of a guideway that only bears linear force.
直线导轨的移动元件和固定元件之间不用中间介质,而用滚动钢球。因为滚动钢球适应于高速运动、摩擦系数小、灵敏度高,满足运动部件的工作要求,如机床的刀架,拖板等。直线导轨系统的固定元件(导轨)的基本功能如同轴承环,安装钢球的支架,形状为“v”字形。支架包裹着导轨的顶部和两侧面。为了支撑机床的工作部件,一套直线导轨至少有四个支架。用于支撑大型的工作部件,支架的数量可以多于四个。
There is no intermediate medium between the moving element and the fixed element of the linear guide rail, but a rolling steel ball. Because the rolling steel ball is suitable for high-speed movement, with small friction coefficient and high sensitivity, it meets the working requirements of moving parts, such as tool rest and carriage of machine tool. The basic function of the fixed element (guide rail) of the linear guide rail system is like a bearing ring, a bracket for installing steel balls, and the shape is "V". The bracket wraps the top and two sides of the guide rail. In order to support the working parts of the machine tool, a set of linear guide rails has at least four supports. For supporting large working parts, the number of supports can be more than four.
机床的工作部件移动时,钢球就在支架沟槽中循环流动,把支架的磨损量分摊到各个钢球上,从而延长直线导轨的使用寿命。为了消除支架与导轨之间的间隙,预加负载能提高导轨系统的稳定性,预加负荷的获得.是在导轨和支架之间安装超尺寸的钢球。钢球直径公差为±20微米,以0.5微米为增量,将钢球筛选分类,分别装到导轨上,预加负载的大小,取决于作用在钢球上的作用力。如果作用在钢球上的作用力太大,钢球经受预加负荷时间过长,导致支架运动阻力大。这里就有一个平衡作用问题;为了提高系统的灵敏度,减少运动阻力,相应地要减少预加负荷,而为了提高运动精度和精度的保持性,要求有足够的预加负数,这是矛盾的两方面。
When the working parts of the machine tool move, the steel balls will circulate in the support groove, and the wear of the support will be allocated to each steel ball, so as to prolong the service life of the linear guide rail. In order to eliminate the gap between the support and the guide rail, preloading can improve the stability of the guide rail system. The acquisition of preloading is to install oversized steel balls between the guide rail and the support. The diameter tolerance of the steel ball is ± 20 microns. The steel balls are screened and classified in increments of 0.5 microns and installed on the guide rail respectively. The size of the preload depends on the force acting on the steel ball. If the force acting on the steel ball is too large, the steel ball will withstand preloading for too long, resulting in high resistance to support movement. There is a problem of balance here; In order to improve the sensitivity of the system and reduce the motion resistance, it is necessary to reduce the preload accordingly. In order to improve the motion accuracy and accuracy retention, it is required to have enough preload negative numbers, which are two contradictory aspects.
工作时间过长,钢球开始磨损,作用在钢球上的预加负载开始减弱,导致机床工作部件运动精度的降低。如果要保持初始精度,更换导轨支架,甚至更换导轨。如果导轨系统已有预加负载作用。系统精度已丧失,一的方法是更换滚动元件。
If the working time is too long, the steel ball begins to wear, and the preload acting on the steel ball begins to weaken, resulting in the reduction of the motion accuracy of the working parts of the machine tool. If you want to maintain the initial accuracy, replace the guide rail bracket, or even replace the guide rail. If the guide rail system has been preloaded. The accuracy of the system has been lost. The first way is to replace the rolling elements.
导轨系统的设计,力求固定元件和移动元件之间有大的接触面积,这不但能提高系统的承载能力,而且系统能承受间歇切削或重力切削产生的冲击力,把作用力广泛扩散,扩大承受力的面积。为了实现这一点,导轨系统的沟槽形状有多种多样,具有代表性的有两种,一种称为哥待式(尖拱式),形状是半园的延伸,接触点为顶点;另一种为园弧形,同样能起相同的作用。无论哪一种结构形式,目的只有一个,力求更多的滚动钢球半径与导轨接触(固定元件)。决定系统性能特点的因素是:滚动元件怎样与导轨接触,这是问题的关键。
The design of guide rail system strives to have a large contact area between fixed components and moving components, which can not only improve the bearing capacity of the system, but also withstand the impact force generated by intermittent cutting or gravity cutting, widely spread the force and expand the bearing area. In order to achieve this, the groove shapes of the guide rail system are diverse, and there are two representative ones. One is called the Godot type (pointed arch type), whose shape is the extension of the half circle, and the contact point is the vertex; The other is circular arc, which can also play the same role. No matter which structural form, there is only one purpose, and strive to make more rolling ball radius contact with the guide rail (fixed elements). The factor that determines the performance characteristics of the system is how the rolling element contacts the guide rail, which is the key to the problem.
以上就是为大家介绍的有关导轨丝杠的详细的介绍,希望对您有所帮助.如果您有什么疑问的话,欢迎联系我们.我们将以的态度,为您提供服务http://www.jngongrun.com
The above is a detailed introduction about the guide screw for you. I hope it will help you. If you have any questions, please contact us. We will provide services for you with a professional attitude http://www.jngongrun.com

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