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【知识讲堂】滚珠丝杠和直线导轨的特性的不同点是什么?

来源:http://www.jngongrun.com/ 日期:2020-10-19 发布人:admin

导轨又称线轨、滑轨、线性导轨、线性滑轨,用于直线往复运动场合,且可以承担一定的扭矩,可在高负载的情况下实现高精度的直线运动。

The guide rail is also called linear track, slide rail, linear guide rail and linear slide rail. It is used in the linear reciprocating motion, and can bear certain torque, and can realize high-precision linear motion under high load.
滚珠丝杠机构作为一种高精度的传动部件,大量应用在数控机床、自动化加工电子精密机械进给机构、伺服机械手、工业装配机器人、半导体生产设备、食品加工与包装、医疗设备等各种领域。
Ball screw mechanism, as a high-precision transmission part, is widely used in CNC machine tools, electronic precision machinery feeding mechanism in automatic processing center, servo manipulator, industrial assembly robot, semiconductor production equipment, food processing and packaging, medical equipment and other fields.
直线导轨和滚珠丝杆同属直线传动设备,但是其工作原理、要求以及使用范围都不一样,但两者的表现在直线传动方面表现却都非常出色。
Linear guide and ball screw are the same linear transmission equipment, but their working principle, requirements and scope of use are different, but both of them perform very well in linear transmission.
滚珠丝杆是工具机械和精密机械上更常使用的传动元件,是由螺杆、螺母、钢球、预压片、反向器、防尘器组成。其主要功能是将旋转运动转换成线性运动,或将扭矩转换成轴向反复作用力,同时兼具高精度、可逆性和率的特点。主要用于一些机床大型备雕刻机械等较为普遍,非常方便的把旋转的运动转换成直线运动用起来非常方便,从而减少整个设备在旋转方面的磨损大大降低。
Ball screw is the most commonly used transmission element in tool machinery and precision machinery, which is composed of screw, nut, steel ball, pre pressing plate, reverser and dust collector. The main function of the system is to convert the rotating motion into linear motion or the torque to axial repeated force, and it has the characteristics of high precision, reversibility and high efficiency. It is mainly used in some large machine tools for carving machines, which is very convenient to convert the rotating motion into linear motion, so as to reduce the wear of the whole equipment in the rotation.

导轨丝杠
1、与滑动丝杆副相比驱动力矩为1/3
1. The driving torque is 1/3 compared with the sliding screw pair
由于滚珠丝杆副的丝杆轴与丝母之间有很多滚珠在做滚动运动,所以能得到较高的运动效率.与过去的滑动丝杆副相比驱动力矩达到1/3以下,即达到同样运动结果所需的动力为使用滚动丝杆副的1/3.在省电方面很有帮助。
Because there are many balls in rolling motion between the screw shaft and the screw mother of the ball screw pair, the higher motion efficiency can be obtained. Compared with the past sliding screw pair, the driving torque reaches less than 1/3, that is, the power required to achieve the same motion result is 1 / 3 of the rolling screw pair. It is very helpful in saving power.
2、高精度的保证
2. High precision guarantee
滚珠丝杆副是用世界水平的机械设备连贯生产出来的,特别是在研削、组装、检查各工序的工厂环境方面,对温度·湿度进行了严格的控制,由于完善的品质管理体制使精度得以充分保证.
Ball screw pairs are produced continuously with the world's highest level of mechanical equipment, especially in the aspects of grinding, assembling and checking the factory environment of each process. The temperature and humidity are strictly controlled. Due to the perfect quality management system, the accuracy can be fully guaranteed
3、微进给可能
3. Micro feed possible
滚珠丝杆副由于是利用滚珠运动,所以启动力矩极小,不会出现滑动运动那样的爬行现象,能保证实现精确的微进给.
Because ball screw pair uses ball motion, the starting torque is very small, and there will be no creeping phenomenon like sliding motion, which can ensure accurate micro feed
4、无侧隙、刚性高
4. No side gap, high rigidity
滚珠丝杆副可以加予压,由于予压力可使轴向间隙达到负值,进而得到较高的刚性(滚珠丝杆内通过给滚珠加予压力,在实际用于机械装置等时,由于滚珠的斥力可使丝母部的刚性增强).
The ball screw pair can be pressurized. Because of the pressure, the axial clearance can reach a negative value, and then get a higher rigidity (the ball screw can be applied with pressure to the ball, and the rigidity of the screw mother can be enhanced due to the repulsion force of the ball in the actual use of mechanical devices)
5、高速进给可能
5. High speed feed possible
滚珠丝杆由于运动效率高、发热小、所以可实现高速进给(运动)。
Because of its high efficiency and small heat, ball screw can achieve high speed feed (motion).
直线导轨的特性
Characteristics of linear guide
1、定位精度高使用直线导轨作为线性导引时,由于直线导轨的摩擦方式为滚动摩擦,不仅摩擦系数降低至滑动导引的1/50,动摩擦力与静摩擦力的差距亦变得很小,因此当床台运动时,不会有打滑的现象发生,可达到超高精密级(um)级定为精度。
1. When linear guide is used as linear guidance with high positioning accuracy, because the friction mode of linear guide is rolling friction, the friction coefficient is reduced to 1/50 of sliding guide, and the difference between dynamic friction and static friction is also very small. Therefore, when the bed moves, there will be no slippage, and the precision can be determined as the ultra-high precision level (UM).
2、磨耗少能长时间维持精度传统的滑动引导,无可避免的会因油膜逆流作用造成平台运动精度不良,且因运动时润滑不充份,导致运行轨道接触面的磨损,严重影响精度,而滚动导引的磨耗非常小,故机台能长时间维持精度。
2. The traditional sliding guide with low wear can maintain precision for a long time. It can not be avoided that the platform motion accuracy is poor due to the reverse flow of oil film, and the lubrication is not sufficient during the movement, which leads to the wear of the contact surface of the running track, which seriously affects the accuracy. However, the wear of rolling guide is very small, so the machine can maintain the precision for a long time.
3、使用高速度运动且大幅降低机台所需驱动马力由于直线导轨移动摩擦力非常小,只需较小动力便能让床台运行,尤其是在床台的工作方式为经常性往返运动时,更能明显降低机台点力损耗量,且因其摩擦产生的热度较小,可适用于高速运行。
3. The high speed movement and the driving horsepower required for the machine are greatly reduced. Because the friction force of the linear guide rail is very small, it can make the bed run only with small power. Especially when the working mode of the bed is regular round-trip movement, the loss of the point force of the machine can be reduced obviously, and the heat produced by friction is small, so it can be applied to high-speed operation.
4、可同时承受上下左右的负荷由于直线导轨特殊的束制结构设计,可同时承受上下左右方向的负荷,不想滑动导引在平行接触面方向可承受的侧向负荷轻,易造成机台运行精度不良。
4. It can bear the load of up and down at the same time. Because of the special beam structure design of linear guide rail, it can bear the load in the upper and lower left and right directions at the same time. It is not necessary to bear the light lateral load in the direction of parallel contact surface, which is easy to cause poor operation accuracy of the machine.
5、组装容易并具互换性组装时只要铣削或研磨床台上导轨之装配面,并依建议之步骤将导轨,滑块分别特定扭力固定于机台上,既能重视加工时的高精度,传统的滑动导引,则须对运行轨道加以铲花,既费事又费时,且一旦机台精度良,又必须在铲花一次,直线导轨具有互换性,可分别更换滑块或导轨至是直线导轨组,机台即可重新获得高精密度的引导。
5. When assembly is easy and interchangeable, only milling or grinding the assembly surface of guide rail on the table, and fixing the guide rail and slide block to the machine table with specific torque according to the recommended steps, not only can the high precision of machining be attached importance to, but the traditional sliding guide must be shoveled on the running track. It is not only difficult but also time consuming. Once the accuracy of the machine is good, it must be done once and straight-line guide must be carried out once The rails are interchangeable, and the sliders or guide rails can be replaced to straight track groups respectively, and the machine can obtain high precision guide again.
6、润滑结构简单滑动引导若润滑不足,将会照成接触面金属直接摩擦损耗床台,而滑动导引要润滑充足并不容易,需要在床台适当的位置钻孔供油,直线导轨则已在装置油嘴,可直接以注油枪打入油脂,亦可换上专用油管接头链接供油油管,以自动供油机润滑。
6. If the lubrication structure is simple, if the lubrication is insufficient, it will be directly friction loss bed table according to the metal of contact surface. However, it is not easy to lubricate enough sliding guide. It is necessary to drill oil supply in proper position of bed table. Linear guide rail is already in the oil nozzle of the device, and oil can be directly injected with oil gun, and special oil pipe joint can be replaced to link oil supply pipe to lubricate the automatic oil supply machine.

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