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导轨丝杠对于数控机床导轨有哪些特性

来源:http://www.jngongrun.com/ 日期:2020-10-29 发布人:admin

机床制造者较关心的莫过于机床的精度,刚性和使用寿命,对导轨系统的关注甚少。但导轨为机床功能的实现奠定了可靠的基础。各种类型的机床工作部件,都是利用控制轴在指定的导轨上运动,机床设计者根据机床的类型和用途选用各种不同形式的导轨系统,用得较为广泛的有下列三种:即平面导轨、直线滚动导轨和循环滚柱与平面导轨的组合所构成的滚动体导轨。下面就来和导轨丝杆小编一起来了解一下数控机床导轨的种类和特性吧。

Machine tool manufacturers are more concerned about the accuracy, rigidity and service life of the machine tool, and pay little attention to the guide rail system. However, the guideway lays a reliable foundation for the realization of machine tool functions. Various types of machine tool working parts use the control axis to move on the designated guide rail. The designer of the machine tool selects various forms of guide rail system according to the type and use of the machine tool. There are three kinds of guide rail widely used: plane guide rail, linear rolling guide rail and rolling body guide rail composed of circular roller and plane guide rail. Next, let's learn about the types and characteristics of CNC machine tool guideway together with guide screw.
一、导轨的功能
1、 Function of guide rail
尽管导轨系统的形式是多种多样的,但工作性质都是相同的,机床工作部件在指定导轨系统上移动,尤如火车沿着铁轨在指定的方向上行驶。主要体现如下三种基本功能:
Although the form of the guide rail system is various, but the nature of the work is the same. The working parts of the machine tool move on the specified guide system, such as the train running along the rail in the specified direction. It mainly embodies the following three basic functions:
1、为承载体的运动导向;
1. Guide the movement of the bearing body;
2、为承载体提供光滑的运动表面;
2. Provide smooth moving surface for the bearing body;
3、把机床的切削所产生的力传到地基或床身上,减少产生的冲击对被动加工零件的影响。沿导轨系统的运动,大多数为直线运动,也有少数为弧线运动。直线导轨的很多技术可以直接应用弧形导轨。
3. The force generated by the cutting of the machine tool is transmitted to the foundation or bed to reduce the impact on the passive machining parts. Most of the motion along the guide rail system is linear motion, and a few are arc motion. Many technologies of linear guideway can be directly applied to arc guideway.
导轨丝杆
Guide screw
二、导轨的分类
2、 Classification of guide rails
机床制造厂都在尽较大的努力,确保导轨安装的精确性。导轨被加工前,导轨和工作部件都已经过时效处理,以消除内应力。为了保证导轨的精度和延长使用寿命,刮研是一种常用的工艺方法。
Machine tool manufacturers are making great efforts to ensure the accuracy of rail installation. Before the guide rail is processed, the guide rail and working parts have been aged to eliminate internal stress. In order to ensure the accuracy of the guide rail and prolong the service life, scraping is a common technology.
1、直线导轨
1. Linear guide
新的导轨系统使机床可获得快速进给速度,在主轴转速相同的情况下,快速进给是直线导轨的特点。直线导轨与平面导轨一样,有两个基本元件;一个作为导向的为固定元件,另一个是移动元件。为了保证机床的精度,床身或立柱少量的刮研是必不可少的,一般情况下,安装比较简单。
The new guideway system enables the machine tool to obtain rapid feed rate. Under the condition of the same spindle speed, rapid feed is the characteristic of linear guide. Like plane guide, linear guide has two basic elements: one is fixed element, the other is moving element. In order to ensure the accuracy of the machine tool, a small amount of scraping and grinding of the bed or column is necessary. In general, the installation is relatively simple.

直线导轨的移动元件和固定元件之间不用中间介质,而用滚动钢球。因为滚动钢球适应于高速运动、摩擦系数小、灵敏度高,满足运动部件的工作要求,如机床的刀架,拖板等。
There is no intermediate medium between the moving element and the fixed element of linear guide, but rolling steel ball is used. Because the rolling steel ball is suitable for high-speed movement, small friction coefficient and high sensitivity, it can meet the working requirements of moving parts, such as tool rest and carriage of machine tool.
工作时间过长,钢球开始磨损,作用在钢球上的预加负载开始减弱,导致机床工作部件运动精度的降低。如果要保持初始精度,必须更换导轨支架,甚至更换导轨。钛浩机械是以回转顶尖、丝杠、机床主轴、轴加工、高精刀柄、刀杆、弹性夹头、非标件加工、机床接杆为公司的主打产品!如果导轨系统已有预加负载作用。系统精度已丧失,的方法是更换滚动元件。
When the working time is too long, the steel ball begins to wear, and the preload acting on the steel ball begins to weaken, which leads to the reduction of the movement accuracy of the working parts of the machine tool. If the initial accuracy is to be maintained, the guide rail bracket must be replaced, or even the guide rail. Tihao machinery is the company's main products, such as rotary center, lead screw, machine tool spindle, shaft processing, high-precision toolholder, cutter bar, elastic chuck, non-standard parts processing and machine tool extension bar. If the guide rail system has preloading effect. The accuracy of the system has been lost, and the only way is to replace the rolling element.
2、直线滚柱导轨
2. Linear roller guide
直线滚柱导轨系统是平面导轨与直线滚柱导轨的组合,用滚柱安装在平行导轨上,用滚柱代钢球承载机床的运动部件。优点是接触面积大、承载负荷大、灵敏度高。从床身尾部看,支架与滚柱置于平面导轨的顶面和侧面,为了获得高精度,在机床工作部件和支架内面之间,设置一块楔板,使预加负载作用于支架的侧面。楔板的工作原理与斜铁相似,工作部件的重量作用于支架的顶面。由于作用在导轨系统上的预加负荷是可调的,为此楔板的损失得到补偿,这一特点被广泛用于中型或大型机床上,因为它对CNC指令反应灵敏,承受负荷大,直线滚柱导轨系统比传统的平面导机能经受高速运转,改善机床的性能。
The linear roller guide rail system is a combination of plane guide rail and linear roller guide rail. The roller is installed on the parallel guide rail, and the roller is used to replace the steel ball to carry the moving parts of the machine tool. The advantages are large contact area, large load bearing capacity and high sensitivity. From the end of the bed, the support and roller are placed on the top and side of the plane guide rail. In order to obtain high precision, a wedge plate is set between the working parts of the machine tool and the inner surface of the support to make the preload act on the side of the support. The working principle of wedge plate is similar to that of inclined iron, and the weight of working parts acts on the top surface of support. Because the preload acting on the guide rail system is adjustable, the loss of wedge plate can be compensated. This feature is widely used in medium or large machine tools, because it is sensitive to CNC instructions and bears large load. The linear roller guide system can withstand high speed operation than the traditional plane guide function and improve the performance of the machine tool.
导轨丝杆
Guide screw
3、镶钢导轨
3. Steel inlaid guide rail
机床上较常用的导轨形式是镶钢导轨,它的使用已有很长的历史。镶钢导轨是导轨系统的固定元件,其截面为矩形。它可水平装在机床的床身上,也可以与床身铸成一体,分别被称为镶钢式或整体式。镶钢式导轨是由钢制成的,经淬硬和磨削。硬度在洛氏硬度60度以上、把镶钢导轨用螺钉或粘结剂(环氧树脂)贴在机床床身或经刮研的立柱配合表面上,确保导轨获得较佳的平面度。这种形式,维修更换方便、简单,很受维修工人的欢迎。
Inlaid steel guideway is the most commonly used guide rail on machine tools, which has been used for a long time. The steel inlaid guide rail is a fixed component of the guide rail system, and its cross section is rectangular. It can be installed horizontally on the bed of the machine tool, and can also be cast into one body with the bed. It is called inlaid steel type or integral type respectively. The steel inlaid guide rail is made of steel, hardened and ground. If the hardness is above 60 degrees of Rockwell hardness, stick the steel inlaid guide rail with screws or adhesive (epoxy resin) on the machine tool bed or the matching surface of the column after scraping, so as to ensure the guide rail to obtain better flatness. This form is convenient and simple for maintenance and replacement, and is very popular with maintenance workers.
4、滑动导轨
4. Slide guide
传统导轨的发展,首先表现在滑动元件和导轨形式上,滑动导轨的特点是导轨和滑动件之间使用了介质,形式的不同在于选择不同的介质。
The development of the traditional guide rail, first of all, is shown in the form of sliding elements and sliding elements. The characteristic of sliding guide rail is that the medium is used between the guide rail and the sliding part. The difference in the form lies in the selection of different media.
以上就是导轨丝杆对于数控机床导轨的种类和特性介绍,如果您有什么不同的意见或者建议可以联系我们,或在我们网站留言http://www.jngongrun.com。
The above is the guide screw for CNC machine tool guide types and characteristics, if you have any different opinions or suggestions, you can contact us, or leave a message on our website http://www.jngongrun.com 。

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